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VOA Interview: African Union Ambassador to US Chihombori-Quao

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VOA’s Cindy Saine talks with African Union Ambassador to the U.S. Arikana Chihombori-Quao.

Saine: “Ambassador, what kind of reaction has there been in Africa to the derogatory comments on immigrants from Africa attributed to President (Donald) Trump?”

African Union Ambassador to the U.S. Arikana Chihombori-Quao: “Well let me start by saying now that he has denied having said it, we are all neutral. However, prior to his denial, we were outraged, infuriated, disgusted and really flat-out abused.”

Saine: “Right, and … I’m wondering if it’s not just so much the comments – which there is some dispute, did he say exactly this word or was it a different word – with several people in the room saying that he did express the sentiment that he would rather have more immigrants from Norway or European countries and also some of the recent policies from the Department of Homeland Security and … I’m just wondering, not just that particular – one particular remark – but if you feel like the whole America First policy of the Trump administration, has that done any lasting damage to U.S.-African ties?”

Chihombori-Quao: “I think it’s a wound that is going to leave a very deep scar, and -uh- that’s troubling for me in the sense that I’m here to ensure, promote – uh – good relationships between the U.S. and Africa. Comments of that nature make it an uphill battle to try and continue to solidify that relationship. I like to often say in my office, I’m here to make sure that America remains Africa’s BFF. You know, best friend forever. So, it’s important that we relate with each other from a point of equality, and those sort of comments do not help in any relationship really, be it country to country, continent to continent, or even in a marriage. I think mutual respect of each other as –uh- human beings is- is- just the right way to go.”

Saine: “Right … I’m sure you are in touch with ambassadors and with leaders in Africa. Have any formal actions been taken in response or do you expect any to come?”

Chihombori-Quao: “I expect some to come. There has been a lot of calling among the ambassadors, who are still quite outraged. Even as I was on my way here, a couple ambassadors called just wanting to hurry up and have this meeting and certain positions have been thrown around and … we’ll see what happens when we meet.”

Saine: “Right. Is there anything you think the president could say or do to make amends and to clarify the situation? Do you think that he should – he should – make clear that those are not his views?”

Chihombori-Quao: “It would be nice if he would categorically deny… having said that. Um, which of course he has … but what’s really difficult for all of us – we had the comments of Nigerians going back to their huts – that was painful, and then when you look at just the overall picture for us as Africans, we are disrespected so often and how we feel on any issue is irrelevant – uh – at least that’s the feeling we get. Uh – We are exploited, have been for centuries. The exploitation continues. We are taken for granted as Africans and quite often you can’t help but wonder – but wonder sometimes – and it’s not just the US, we’re talking in general by other countries – how much of it has to do with the pigmentation in our skin? Uh- because it’s done so systematically and it gets in the way of development on the continent. We have some of the best tourist attractions in the world and yet we are enjoying just a fraction of the tourism dollars around the globe and a lot of it has to do with the – uh- the brush we’ve been painted with over the years. You know we are the brightest continent. I would like to think that the sun shines brightest over Africa than anywhere else on earth and yet we are referred to as “The Dark Continent”- words like that, you know? Diseased and dying continent – really? Look at me. Do I look diseased and dying? You know? Just outrageous depiction of our beautiful continent that is designed to keep us at a certain place and never allow Africa to take its rightful place on the world stage. To me, that is the most painful thing and it is such an uphill battle unless we come together as Africans and take a position and say enough is enough. We can no longer continue to tolerate abuse of any kind in any way, shape or form from anybody. Ally or Foe. They will continue to do it. And – um – by they I mean really the world.”

Saine: “Right, and you point out other countries, France and other European countries, that are having similar issues with their immigration policies and – ”

Chihombori-Quao: “Right, but Africa becomes – uh — a playground or like a football. They just there go to play, and – uh, exploit – I mean you take for example, you brought in France. I mean if Africans – Francophone African countries – were to decide today that all French companies must get out of Africa. That all the monies that are going to France, estimated at hundreds of billions of dollars annually, if all that funding would stop going to France today, France will immediately become the third world country and Africa no longer needs to be getting aide from anybody. If you look at the billions of dollars France is getting out of Africa every year and then the fraction that they give back to Africa in the name of aide, out of what I like to call loot. They loot from us at night and during the day they come back and give us a pittance of the loot in the name of aide. It is a joke, and how we Africans have tolerated this for centuries is sad. But you know, it’s not too late. We have got to change this situation. We have got to start benefitting from our God-given natural resources. And yet, if you look at our minerals, we get royalties. French companies swoop into Africa. They bring French men to come in, working in the mines, in the industries, in the oil rigs, and we get royalties. 12 to 15 percent. It’s mind boggling. It’s completely mind boggling.”

Saine: “Before this latest incident, how was President Trump viewed broadly in Africa?”

Chihombori-Quao: “Well, let me make this clear. America is Africa’s best ally. That will never change. The Americans that I have lived with and grown to know over the past 40 years that I’ve lived in this country, the Americans that I’ve gotten to really know from a very deep level as a practicing physician have not changed. Amazing people. People that I met first as Peace Corps teachers in my high school in Zimbabwe. People who had such a deep effect on me, that I knew when I grew up that wherever they came from that’s where I wanted to go .Those people -that American – I have always loved and cherished. And so, when President Trump came to be President, he was an American. We respect him. He is the leader of the free world, and so that was our approach to him and we still would like to give him a chance to maintain that position among the Africans.”

Saine: “Right – um – Secretary of State Rex Tillerson has said he is planning his first visit as Secretary to the African continent early this year. Do you think that the secretary should still go in light of these remarks and do you think that he will make this visit?”

Chihombori-Quao: “I think he should go. I have personally met Secretary Tillerson. He’s – he’s — looks like a very nice man. Our relationship with America will continue. This is just a stumbling block, and I am here to see to it that we have the best relationship with America that Africa can have, and yes we will receive Secretary Tillerson with open arms and give him the warm African reception which is the only way we know how to treat our guests. So yes, I think he should go.”

Saine: “Excellent – um – Some critics are saying that the remarks that have been attributed to the president are particularly insensitive due to the fact that immigrants from Africa are the only ones who were brought to America against their will as slaves. Could you comment a little bit on that, on this aspect of how – how – African immigrants perceive – not just, not just- perhaps from the President, but from your day to day experience maybe with others?”

Chihombori-Quao: “Well, I have to say, it’s not easy being a black person on Earth. I take it even further and say the most endangered species on earth is a black man. So when you look at it from that crude reality that we deal with on a daily basis as black people, it is very, very painful. It hurts to think that you can encounter certain situations, on a daily basis, simply because of the melanin – the quantity of the melanin in your skin – I will give you a simple example. I’m a medical doctor. Practice medicine for 26 years in this country, and I remember pulling up into my parking lot at my office and there was a car in the parking lot, obviously of someone waiting to be seen by me, but it had a big bumper sticker that said ‘Proud to be KKK’ and I remember thinking – there is someone who feels that way who is in my building waiting to be seen by me, and yet he still harbors those kinds of feelings towards me. Even though, I may walk into a room and say – uh, sir you need to take off your clothes, and I come back three minutes later and he’s stark naked. I have that much power over him, and yet he still feels he is better than me simply because of my melanin. That’s a tough one. It’s really a tough pill to swallow as we go through this journey that is life as black people on earth. That’s hard.”

Saine: “That’s quite a disconnect, but I know that your job as you say is to promote the best possible ties and how important is the relationship to the United States for the countries of Africa?”

Chihombori-Quao: “Oh my goodness, we love the United States. We value our relationship with the United States which is why we would like to see us continue to get better and like I said be the BFF that we want America to be, and we hope America will reciprocate and also look at Africa as its BFF. We need each other. We must engage from a point of equality where we can mutually benefit from the relationship without one feeling superior to the other, and unless we can operate from that point of view, the new African is not going to put up with that. And, that’s something I am going to do my best to empress to the U.S. government that we can no longer play this game with the old strategies. I like in our relationship to basketball match. You know when the coach calls his team to the sidelines and they’re scribbling on the note pads? I often wonder what they’re talking, but my son then told me mommy, they’re strategizing. We’re at a point where America needs to re-strategize because the game they’re playing with Africa is a losing game, and there’s need for them to re-strategize because the new African is saying uh-uh, not this time.”

Saine: “Um, looking forward what specific steps, do you think that both the U.S. and Africa can do to strengthen their relationship, as you say, with the new Africa and work together. The U.S. is very dependent on a number of African countries to help fight terrorism and to promote economic well-being and prosperity in both continents.”

Chihombori-Quao: “Well we continue to collaborate effectively, for example, terrorism as you mentioned. We are collaborating in various areas with the U.S. government. We have a working relationship, don’t get me wrong. We have a very good, solid working relationship with the U.S. government. That relationship needs to get better. It needs to continue to be solidified, and we need to feel, get the sense, that we are being treated as equals not only by the United States but all countries that are engaged in Africa. More importantly, the uphill battle is with our colonial – former colonial – masters. See the relationship with America is not so difficult in the sense that it’s not weighted down by the legacy of colonialism, so we can engage the United States because we feel like they understand what it means to have been colonized and so that’s an easier relationship to manage which is why I truly believe America and Africa can be the best friends that they are designed to be. And, we both parties just have to work at it with similar spirt.”

Saine: “Can you tell me about – um- the views expressed on immigrants? Is that going to be an issue at the next African Union meeting? Are there going to be meetings in Washington? Can you just tell me if that’s going to be a big item on the agenda coming up?”

Chihombori-Quao: “It is a big item on the agenda, and the heads of states are going to be talking about it. Yes. They are furious, I’m just going to tell you like it is. They are furious. Like my daughter likes to say – fuming from every orifice. [LAUGHS] They are furious. Yes, my chairman, you know he spoke to Ambassador Marybeth, the U.S. Ambassador to the AU and he made position very clear.”

Saine: “So you think we’ll be hearing more- maybe -formal reactions in the days to come?”

Chihombori-Quao: “Um, I don’t about from the AU but I do know that it’s on the agenda. It’s on the agenda absolutely”

Saine: “OK, well is there anything else that I have not covered ambassador that you would like to say to our audience?”

Chihombori-Quao: “Well, I would like to say I am privilege to have lived the past 40 years in- um- one of the most beautiful countries on earth, next to Africa of course [LAUGHS] next to the African continent absolutely. And – um – I am very grateful to the American people for – um – the reception that I have received. I am very grateful to my patients for making me who I am – uh – today. I learnt a lot by going through situations with my patients. I feel like I have experienced so much, and so I am very grateful to my patients. And then, lastly, the Africa Bureau staff – they are amazing at the State Department. I want to thank –Secretary, um – Asst. Sec. Yamamoto. He is an amazing guy. He has an amazing team. Which really makes the job a lot easier, because they really are incredible people. I have worked more closely with them, and I am very grateful, to –uh- their ears. They listen, they care. And – uh – so to that extent they are making my job a little bit easier. As you know, I am a medical doctor. I was not a career diplomatic leader, a career politician and so coming to an African Bureau that has people who are so humble and grounded, it has made my job a lot easier. So, I would like to make sure that people are aware that there are many aspects of what is happening here that are going to be lost in the shuffle. I have met some incredible people working for the State Department and I like to make it clear that I am very grateful for their friendship and how well they have received me.”

Saine: “Alright. Thank you so much. It’s a real pleasure talking to you.”

Chihombori-Quao: “Thank you again for having me.”

Saine: “Thank you”

Africa

South Africa’s President Jacob Zuma resigns

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South Africa’s embattled President Jacob Zuma has resigned his office with immediate effect.

He made the announcement in a televised address to the nation on Wednesday evening.

Earlier, Mr Zuma’s governing ANC party told him to resign or face a vote of no confidence in parliament on Thursday.

The 75-year-old has been under increasing pressure to give way to Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa, the ANC’s new leader.

Mr Zuma faces numerous allegations of corruption.

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South Africa’s ANC gives Zuma 48 hours to quit, state broadcaster says

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PRETORIA/JOHANNESBURG (Reuters) – South Africa’s ruling African National Congress (ANC) gave President Jacob Zuma 48 hours to resign as head of state on Monday after an eight-hour meeting of the party’s top leadership, the SABC state broadcaster said.

Party leader Cyril Ramaphosa’s motorcade left a marathon ANC National Executive Committee (NEC) meeting at 10:30 p.m. (2030 GMT) for Zuma’s residence near the Union Buildings in Pretoria to deliver the message in person, the SABC said, citing sources.

His motorcade returned an hour later to the venue of the ANC meeting debating Zuma’s fate.

The rand ZAR=D3, which has tended to strengthen on signs Zuma could step down before his second term ends next year, extended its gains to 0.7 percent to the dollar on expectations Zuma was on his way out.

ANC officials and Zuma’s spokesman could not be reached to comment.

Since Ramaphosa was elected party leader in December, Zuma has faced mounting calls from his party to end his scandal-plagued second term a year early.

The NEC meeting in a Pretoria hotel had all the ingredients for a showdown between Zuma stalwarts and those backing a swift transfer of power to Ramaphosa, the deputy state president.

Ramaphosa, 65, says he has held direct talks with Zuma over a transfer of power, and said on Sunday the meeting of the party’s executive committee would be aiming on Monday to “finalize” the situation.

The party executive has the authority to order Zuma to step down as head of state, although there is domestic media speculation that he might yet refuse.

Zuma survived calls last year from within the NEC for him to quit.[L8N1IU0QO] But analysts say there is greater support for him to step down now.

His tenure as president officially runs until mid-2019 and he has not said publicly whether he will step down voluntarily.

The president is also facing a no-confidence motion in parliament set for Feb. 22, but has survived several similar attempts to oust him in the past.

His entire Cabinet would have to step down if the motion of no-confidence against him was successful.

Since becoming president in 2009, Zuma has been dogged by scandal. He is fighting the reinstatement of 783 counts of corruption over a 30 billion-rand (now $2.5 billion) government arms deal arranged in the late 1990s when he was deputy president.

Some within the ANC and the opposition say the Gupta family, friends of Zuma, have used their links with the president to win state contracts and influence Cabinet appointments. The Guptas and Zuma have denied any wrongdoing.

India’s Bank of Baroda (BOB.NS), which counts the Guptas as clients, has announced plans to exit South Africa, the central bank said on Monday.

Ramaphosa has put the focus on rooting out corruption and revitalizing economic growth since defeating Zuma’s preferred successor, Zuma’s ex-wife Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, in the ANC leadership race.

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Base race in the Horn of Africa

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The Interpreter — A race is underway between Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Turkey to build naval and military bases right across the Horn of Africa. This threatens to change the naval balance in the north-west Indian Ocean. But it may also presage the beginnings of a new strategic order in this complex and multipolar region where a host of major and middle powers jostle for influence and position.

The strategic order in the Indian Ocean is changing fast. In the last few years we have seen major powers, such as China and India, building new bases in the western Indian Ocean. But we are now witnessing several Middle Eastern players building their own areas of influence. This is happening in the Horn of Africa, but is likely to spread further into the Indian Ocean.

Base race in the Horn of Africa
Saudi Arabia has recently finalised a deal to establish a naval base in Djibouti. Its UAE ally has just built major naval and air facilities at Assab in nearby Eritrea. The UAE also runs a military training centre in Mogadishu in Somalia, and is rumoured to be seeking access to port and air facilities at Berbera in the breakaway province of Somaliland.

In recent weeks, Turkey signed a deal with Sudan to rebuild the old Ottoman-era port of Suakin on the Red Sea, which will reportedly include naval facilities. The port last hit the international spotlight in 1883 when British (and Australian) forces under Kitchener used it as a base to pursue the “Mad” Mahdi. A Turkish naval base at Suakin would upset the military balance on the Red Sea, potentially setting off a naval arms race with countries such as Saudi Arabia and Egypt. This is on top of Turkey’s existing military facilities at Qatar (where some 3000 troops are now stationed) and Mogadishu.

Indeed, hosting foreign military bases has become a bit of a regional specialty. Djibouti, which sits on the Strait of Bab el-Mandeb (the maritime choke point between the Indian Ocean and the Suez Canal), has made virtue of its geography by creating a successful business model out of hosting foreign military bases. It now hosts naval and military forces from France, the US, Japan, Italy, China, and the Saudis, among other countries.
The immediate imperative behind these moves in the Horn of Africa is the growing rivalry between the two new Middle Eastern blocs: Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Egypt on one side; and Turkey, Iran, and Qatar on the other. A proxy conflict between these rival blocs in Yemen has a strong naval element, with the Houthi rebels being supplied by sea. The naval blockade of Yemen and support of government forces give the Emirate and Saudi navies good reasons to establish bases nearby.

But the implications of these developments go far beyond the Horn of Africa. This base race is symptomatic of bigger strategic aspirations of several “non-traditional” middle powers in the Indian Ocean region.

Turkey’s long-forgotten glories
Turkey has not been seen in the Indian Ocean since the time of Lawrence of Arabia, more than a century ago. But the country is undergoing a “global reawakening” that includes a national remembrance of the glories of the Ottoman Empire. In their heyday, the Ottomans exerted influence right across the Islamic world, through Africa and in the northern Indian Ocean. The Ottomans even boasted a protectorate in Aceh, in present-day Indonesia.

This history is now being disinterred. No doubt we will soon be reminded of the exploits of several long-forgotten Ottomans’ naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean to the Strait of Malacca and beyond.

President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has ambitions, which some call “neo-Ottoman”, across the region. Turkey is already a security player in the eastern Indian Ocean. In September 2017, Turkey was the first country to deliver aid to the Rohingyas in Myanmar and in Bangladesh during the latest bout of ethnic cleansing by the Myanmar regime.

The Emirates spreads its wings
The Emirates, a regional rival of Turkey, is also spreading its wings. The Emirates has long had aspirations in the Indian Ocean, far beyond the Yemen conflict. The UAE has given considerable financial and political support to small island states, such as Comoros, Maldives, Seychelles, Mauritius, and Comoros (which are Muslim-majority or have significant Muslim populations), and it is a large investor in East Africa.

The UAE is also showcasing a broader political role in the Indian Ocean, which will include taking the chair of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, the Indian Ocean’s pan-regional political grouping, from 2019.

The UAE should be expected to be a significant Indian Ocean player in the years ahead, as strategic competition grows in East Africa and nearby islands.

Middle power punch in the Indian Ocean
The new base race in the Horn of Africa underlines doubts over Washington’s commitment to the region. The shale oil revolution has put the US on a path to becoming the world’s biggest oil net exporter within the next decade, meaning that the Persian Gulf may become less of a strategic imperative for it.

Although US defence forces remain in the region (including the Fifth Fleet in Bahrain), there are doubts over US staying power. This, of course, has only been amplified by the antics of the Trump administration. Regional players seem to be positioning themselves for what they see as an inevitable drawdown in US forces.

Just as importantly, the base race by “new” middle powers demonstrates just how multipolar and complex the Indian Ocean is likely to become. For countries such as Australia, the Indian Ocean will not only involve working with major powers such as the US, India, and China, or allies such as France and Japan. It seems that there will be a host of other players, each with their own agendas and alignments.

Australia has long experience working within international coalitions, which in recent years has included commanding broad naval coalitions in the western Indian Ocean. That may be the new order of the day in the Indian Ocean.

David Brewster’s latest book is India and China at Sea: Competition for Naval Dominance in the Indian Ocean. The essays in the volume, by noted strategic analysts from across the world, seek to better understand Indian and Chinese perspectives about their roles in the Indian Ocean and their evolving naval strategies towards each other.

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