The economic cost of maritime piracy is increasing once again as Somali pirate networks resume attacks on ships, while kidnapping for ransom becomes a more popular tactic, according to a new report.
The State of Maritime Piracy 2016, a new report released Wednesday from NGO group Oceans Beyond Piracy (OBP), claims the economic cost of piracy caused by groups in Somalia increased to $1.7 billion in 2016, from $1.3 billion in 2015. This total includes costs paid by shipping operators for increased insurance, labor, armed guards and other protection measures, as well as ransoms paid by insurers and the costs of naval deployments.
The cost had been trending downwards from $7 billion since 2010 due to counter-piracy measures, but the report claims that decreased vigilance by the shipping community, such as hiring smaller private security teams, may have encouraged pirate groups.
While zero vessels were hijacked in 2016, there were 27 reported incidents of pirate activity, according to the report. In 2017, there have been two high-profile hijackings by Somali pirates, including the Aris-13 tanker in mid-March and a commercial Indian ship in April.
Emma Gordon, senior Africa analyst at global risk consultancy Verisk Maplecroft, criticized the complacency of shipping operators. Only 31.5 percent of operators employed armed guards by the end of 2016.
“Somali piracy is still a long way off 2012 levels. However, the recent attacks highlight that the pirate groups remain operational, and will be quick to capitalize on vessels that do not strictly adhere to advanced security measures,” she told CNBC via email.
“The importance of having armed guards is evident when looking at two recent tanker incidents. In October 2016, a U.K.-flagged chemical tanker fended off an attempted hijack when the armed guards engaged pirates in a firefight. By contrast, the Aris-13 – the first commercial vessel hijacked since 2012 – had no armed guard, and was ignoring best practice guidance on route and speed.”
This spike in activity has been blamed on the socio-political situation in Somalia. The OBP report says the lack of economic opportunity and law enforcement in the country remains unchanged, allowing piracy to flourish.
Similarly, Thomas Waldhauser, the commander of U.S. military operations in Africa, said during a press conference in Djibouti that the spate of attacks was due to widespread drought and famine in the region, as many of the ships targeted carried food and oil, the Washington Post reported on April 23.
Gerry Northwood, chief operating officer at MAST, the maritime risk management consultancy, blamed the rise in attacks on the decreased naval presence in the region.
“The withdrawal of navies from the region and many vessels not having in place sufficient security measures, coupled with reports of extensive illegal fishing in Somali waters, will make Somalis return to the business model which proved so lucrative between 2008-2010, meaning seafarers will again be the ultimate victims of criminal activity, as we saw with the hijacking of the Aris 13,” he told CNBC in March in an email.
While much attention is paid to Somalia, attacks in West Africa are also increasing. There were 95 reported attacks in the region in 2016, up from 54 in 2015, with two-thirds of attacks taking place near Nigeria. Kidnap for ransom attacks increased, with 18 incidents of kidnapping and 96 seafarers taken hostage, up from 44 the previous year.
“One of the reasons we are observing increased incidents of kidnap for ransom is that the model offers financial gain with less risk to the perpetrators than hijacking for cargo theft,” said Maisie Pigeon, a lead author of the OBP report, in a press release.
“Unfortunately, these kinds of attacks appear to have continued into 2017.”
Singapore-flagged tanker attacked off Somalia but escapes
AP — Mogadishu – An international anti-piracy force says a Singapore-flagged chemical tanker has exchanged fire with attackers off the coast of Somalia before escaping unharmed.
The European Union anti-piracy force says in a statement that the MT Leopard Sun was attacked by two skiffs early on Friday about 160 nautical miles off central Somalia. A private security team on the tanker fired warning shots and the skiffs turned away about 20 minutes later.
The Horn of Africa nation saw a brief resurgence of pirate attacks a year ago.
The EU statement says Friday’s attack is “likely to be piracy related” and is the first such attack since November.
The statement says the chemical tanker had been en route from Oman to Cape Town, South Africa.
Can Somalia’s fishing industry keep pirates out of business?
Rising piracy on Indian Ocean spells high insurance charges
Daily Nation — Cases of piracy in Indian Ocean off Somalia coast increased in 2017, raising fears that sustained attacks could raise insurance and freight costs for Kenya importers.
Nine piracy attacks were recorded off Somalia in 2017, up from two in 2016, a new report shows, as global attacks dropped to a 22-year low.
“The dramatic incident, alongside our 2017 figures, demonstrates that Somali pirates retain the capability and intent to launch attacks against merchant vessels hundreds of miles from their coastline,” Mr Pottengal Mukundan, International Maritime Bureau (IMB), director said in a statement.
The increase in such attacks usually comes with costs such as increased insurance premiums, longer freight routes as vessels avoid hot spots and additional cost of hiring private armed guards.
For country that imports more than Sh1.3 trillion worth of consumer and industrial goods, the increased cost is eventually passed to the consumer through higher retail prices.
In their heyday six years ago, Somali pirates launched 237 attacks off the coast of Somalia in 2011, the IMB says, and held hundreds of hostages.
That year, Ocean’s Beyond Piracy estimated the global cost of piracy was about $7 billion.
The shipping industry bore roughly 80 per cent of those costs, the group’s analysis showed.
But attacks fell sharply after ship owners tightened security and avoided the Somali coast.
Intervention by regional naval forces that flooded into the area helped disrupt several hijack bids and improved security for the strategic trade route that leads through the Suez Canal and links the oilfields of the Middle East with European ports.
The IMB data shows a total of 180 incidents of piracy and armed robbery against ships took place globally, the lowest level of sea-based crimes to be recorded since 1995, when 188 reports were received.